following on [indica-sativa-hybrid]
Another important point concerning the effects: For example, you will be told that sativas are better for use during the day, because they have energetic and euphoric effects, while the indicators being more relaxing and sedative, will be preferred in the evening. Again, not everything is that simple.
First of all, the effects of cannabis at a point in common with those of alcohol: Depending on the dose administered, the effects are not identical. If you drink 1 glass of beer, you will be euphoric and relaxed, while if you drink 10 beers, you will not be 10x more euphoric and relaxed. The effect will simply not be the same. For cannabis, the same principle applies .
And depending on the individual, the symptoms associated with substances can vary greatly depending on the sensitivity and reactivity of each individual .
It should be noted that the effects of cannabis depend mainly on 2 chemical groups: cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBN,…) and terpenes (myrcene, pinene, limonene,…) which operate synergistically (the entourage effect) .
The quality and quantity of these natural chemical molecules will therefore establish their mental, physical and emotional properties on humans.
SteepHillLab, for example, an American company recognized as pioneers in cannabis terpene analysis, classifies a rather sativa or indica effect based on the content of a terpene, myrcene.
If a variety has less than 0.5% of myrcene it will have an energizing effect and if its rate of myrcene is higher than 0.5%, its effect will be rather calming and sedative .
Myrcene is only one example where terpenes play a major role in classifying the effects of different cannabis varieties (cultivars).
It should be noted that the very small amounts of terpenes present in cannabis compared to cannabinoids have as much influence on the effect as cannabinoids.
The wide variability of terpene compositions can potentially be a good tool for characterizing cannabis biotypes, and ongoing research in this area will help define the therapeutic properties of each variety and to select which variety is least likely to be attacked by predators or diseases in crops.
More detailed studies are needed in the variability of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Crossbreeding to promote a specific terpene is a complex and fascinating area of research.
Terpene assays, combined with cannabinoids and other flavonoid assays are essential to metabolize the digital fingerprint of pharmaceutical cutivars.
The effects of cultivars of these two main biotypes, sativa and indica, can have significant therapeutic variations depending on their relative terpene levels and the resulting synergies. Research in this area will make it possible to elucidate the phytocomplexity of cannabis and select cultivars (hemotypes) with specific (therapeutic) effects .